Typhoid Fever Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Vaccine and Treatment
Typhoid fever is a severe illness usually caused by the Salmonella Typhi bacteria or Salmonella Paratyphi, a related bacterium. In comparison with Typhi bacteria, Salmonella Paratyphi causes a less acute illness. The bacteria are deposited in the edibles by human carrier. Once deposited, the bacteria contact people in the surrounding area. So, drinking or eating the contaminated water or food is the principal cause of Typhoid fever.
People with Typhoid fever can contaminate the surrounding water supply by crapping, which contains a high concentration of the bacteria. The contaminated water can then taint the food supply. In dried sewage or water, the bacteria can survive for weeks. So, environmental sanitation is the primary step you can take to minimize the risk of Typhoid fever. Other than this, you can use Typhoid vaccines as a preventive measure. On an estimate, about 21 million people worldwide suffer from Typhoid fever every year, and 200,000 of them die of the disease.
Symptoms and Diagnosis
Ingestion of contaminated food or water causes the Salmonella bacteria to invade the small intestine. The bacteria then enter the bloodstream. White blood cells carry the bacteria in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, where they multiply in numbers. The recognized symptoms the patients with Typhoid may experience include acute fever, loss of appetite, headache, lethargy and diarrhea. The bacteria may also enter the biliary system, the gallbladder and the lymphatic tissue of the bowel where they multiply in high number. Since the bacteria pass into the intestinal tract, Typhoid fever can be identified in stool samples. If the stool sample doesn’t identify the disease, blood samples are taken to make a diagnosis.
Typhoid Fever Vaccine
Vaccines that prevent Typhoid fever are called Typhoid vaccines. They come in two types: Ty21a (a live vaccine given monthly) and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine (an injectable subunit vaccine). These vaccines can be effective for the first two years, depending on the specific vaccine in question. In areas where the disease is common, all children should be vaccinated properly. Typhoid vaccines are recommended to control the outbreaks of diseases. Additional doses may also be recommended each one to seven year, based on area and the patients at risk. With minimal side effects, current vaccines are considered to be effective and safe. The side effects may however occur at the site of injection. Injectable vaccines are recommended for HIV/AIDS, while the oral vaccines are used when the symptoms are not present. However, during pregnancy, safety of oral vaccine is not clear.
Typhoid fever treatment
Typhoid fever is a deadly yet curable disease. It can be treated with antibiotics, which can kill the Salmonella bacteria. The fatality rate was 20% prior to the use of antibiotics. In rare cases, death occurs from overwhelming infection, pneumonia, intestinal bleeding or intestinal perforation. Invention of antibiotics has reduced the mortality by 2%. Use of appropriate antibiotic therapy improves the health in one or two days. However, the overall recovery may take seven to ten days.
Author’s bio- author of this article is a home healthcare provider in Indirapuram, Ghaziabad. In the above write-up, the author has suggested the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, vaccines and treatment of Typhoid fever.